PROJECT EXPLORE - ABSTRACTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MODULES ****************************************************** MODULES:  WHERE IN THE WORLD IS ANTARCTICA? The goal of this module is to help students describe the location, relative size and shape of Antarctica. The module contains five activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY #1: Students using a handout containing the outlines of six continents will label each one. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY #2: In this activity, students will construct a balloon "globe" and attempt to locate the positions of the continents from Exploration Activity #1 on this globe. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY: Students will check the accuracy of their globes using latitude and longitude reference points located on continents from Exploration Activity #1. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Making a map of Antarctica using polar coordinate graph paper) The purpose of this activity is to further explore the idea of using latitude and longitude in locating Antarctica. The students will use polar coordinate graph paper and points of latitude and points of longitude to construct a map of Antarctica. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2 (Plotting the route of the Trans-Antarctica Expedition) Using the map constructed in Activity #1 and the latitude and longitude data from the expedition bulletins, plot the progress of the trek.  WHAT IS THE WEATHER AND CLIMATE OF ANTARCTICA? The goal of this module is to help students describe the weather that occurs in Antarctica. The module contains five activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Students will provide oral or written responses to the following questions: - Describe what the weather is like at the South Pole. - List the clothing that you would take to Antarctica including amounts. - Explain why Antarctica is colder or warmer than where you live. - Describe in two or three sentences the difference in climate and weather. - Describe what you think is the perfect climate for yourself and what activities you would like to do in that climate. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY: Present the background materials for this module using any of the following methods: audio/visual materials about Antarctica; lecture; students read background information and complete Antarctica Weather and Climate Worksheet; students will complete library research about the weather in Antarctica. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Weather of the Expedition) In this activity, students will look at the weather that the Expedition will encounter as they travel across Antarctica. They will also evaluate what types of weather might interfere with the activities of the Expedition. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Climate Comparison Activity) In this activity, students will plot temperature and precipitation graphs for three different locations. They will then determine the factors which are responsible for these climates. They can then pick the perfect climate and what they would do for employment and recreation in that environment. They will then compare their perfect climate with Antarctica's climate. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #3: (Antarctica Travel Brochure) Working in groups of two, students will design a travel brochure that could be given to travelers to Antarctica. Included in the brochure would be information about the seasonal weather along with suggested attire and a list of possible activities designed to entice a traveler to make a trip to Antarctica.  WHAT NATURAL RESOURCES DOES ANTARCTICA HAVE? The goal of this module is to help students describe the natural resources of Antarctica. The module contains five activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Students will answer the following questions: - Draw a map of the Earth showing North America and Antarctica. - Describe what you think Antarctica is like compared to where you live. - What is a natural resource? - List three examples of natural resources that you have in your community. - Explain how the resources found in your local community were formed and some of their uses. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY: Present the background materials for this module by using any of the following methods: - Show students audio/visual materials about Antarctica. - Have student locate pictures of Antarctica to share with the class. - Lecture and provide students with a set of notes on the Resources of Antarctica using the background information for a reference. - Have students read the background information and answer the questions on the Resources of Antarctica Worksheet. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Exploiting Antarctica's resources. Is there another solution?) In this activity, students pick one of Antarctica's resources and research how our society uses that resource. They then try to formulate a plan to develop alternatives to using that resource or if alternatives don't exist, they then come up ways to conserve that resource. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Antarctica resource group project) Groups of students research a resource and report either in writing or orally on the following information: - How the resource is used. - How the resource is mined or recovered around the world. - Some environmental impacts of recovering that resource. - Design some possible methods of recovering that resource in Antarctica. - Describe some possible environmental impacts of recovering that resource in Antarctica. - Explain how the environmental impacts caused by recovery could be eliminated or minimized. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #3: (The Antarctica Resource Puzzle) In this activity, students will piece together Gondawana and see if they can determine where the resources in Antarctica are located. This will be based on the theory of plate tectonics and make the assumption that all of the resources were formed before the large land mass broke up.  ANTARCTIC ICE: WHAT'S THERE AND WHERE DID IT COME FROM? The goal of this module is to help students describe the origins, dynamics, extent and possible future of the Antarctic ice sheet. The module contains six activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Having students provide oral responses to the question: "What is Antarctica like?" and record student responses. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY I: Begin with a short lecture reviewing the information in the background section. Be sure to include information about crevasse formation. Working in groups, students will answer the following questions: - What dangers do the members of the Trans-Antarctica Expedition face as they travel across the ice? - How would you solve the problems related to the dangers of ice travel? CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY II: Students will do a short calculation to illustrate the size of the Antarctic ice sheet. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: Students will do a short calculation to determine how much deeper the oceans will be if the Antarctica ice sheet melts. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: Using a map, students will list the major U.S. cities that would be flooded if the ocean rose 200 feet. Students will also write out a long range disaster plan. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #3: Students will conduct library research related to the debate on "global warming."  ANTARCTICA GEOLOGY: WHAT IS UNDER ALL THE ICE? The goal of this module is to help students describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain where the rock may have come from. The module contains four activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Ask students to describe orally what they know about the geology of Antarctica. Compile a list of student responses. Have students examine samples of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock and speculate on how they were formed. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY, PART A & B: The concept invention activity will help students understand the basic geologic regions of Antarctica and the basic rock types round in these regions. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: Using a map of the Expedition's route, students will select rock samples that represent the land under the ice. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: Using a map of Antarctica, students will identify the rock types in certain areas and write a short description of how the rocks probably formed.  WHAT LIVES IN ANTARCTICA AND HOW DO THEY SURVIVE? The goals of this module are to help students be able to describe the lack of permanent inhabitants in Antarctica and to identify the various adaptations that allow these inhabitants to survive. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Use the five activities to determine students' initial understanding of the types of organisms that live in the Antarctic. CONCEPT INVENTION PART A - ACTIVITY #1: (What lives in Antarctica and when?) Use brainstorming and Socratic discussion to establish exactly what life forms are found in Antarctica and when. CONCEPT INVENTION PART A - ACTIVITY #2: (What lives in Antarctica and when?) Student will conduct library research on what organisms live in Antarctica and when. CONCEPT INVENTION PART B - ACTIVITY #1: (Adapting to the cold) Students will investigate two ways that animals are protected from the extreme temperatures of their biome. CONCEPT INVENTION PART B ACTIVITY #2: (Adapting to the cold) Student will investigate how glycopeptide can protect fish that live in the Antarctic. EXTENSION ACTIVITY: (Interactions among living things) Students will observe whether there is a tendency for a change in behavior to occur in an animal under observation. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Adaptation in two Husky sled dogs) Working in cooperative groups, students will write an explanation of the observed coat difference between two sled dog puppies. One puppy was once raised in Southern California and the other was raised in Antarctica. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Creating an Antarctic life form) Students will invent a new life form that could survive on the land year-round in Antarctica. Students will draw and label a diagram of the new life form and if time permits, construct a paper mache model.  WHO EATS WHO IN THE ANTARCTIC? The goal of this module is to help students use food webs and food chain diagrams to explain how life forms found in the Antarctic are dependent on each other. The module contains eight activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Students will provide written or oral responses to the following questions: - List all the life forms that live around or on Antarctica. - Describe what a food web or food chain is. - Draw a food chain or food web found in a local ecosystem. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY: Present the background materials for this module using any of the following methods: Lecture, or have students read and take notes on the handouts "Who Eats Who?"; "How Does It Work?"; and "Antarctic Waters: Who Lives There?" APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Who's who in the Antarctic?) Students will be able to identify organisms found in the Antarctic as producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and scavengers. This will allow students to become aware of the roles these organisms play in the Antarctic community. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1a: (Who eats who in the Antarctic?) Using the organisms identified in Activity #1, students will organize them into food chains. This will help students become familiar with the Antarctic food chains. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Antarctic food chain game) Students will become aware of what food chains are and how they work by constructing food chain diagrams using organisms found in the Antarctic. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #3: (Who's caught in the food web?) This activity illustrates the interdependence of plants and animals found in the Antarctic. It will help students picture the main Antarctic food web.  CAN YOU SURVIVE IN THE ANTARCTIC? The goal of this module is to help students express an understanding of potential winter survival situations and to give options and make correct choices if faced with a winter survival situation. The module contains five activities. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Students will describe: - What the weather conditions in the Antarctic might be like. - What the conditions are like in a winter snowstorm. - What are the effects of cold on a human body. - How a person can stay warm in the winter. CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY #1: (Minnesota winter -- Could you survive it?) This activity will help students think about trying to survive in a cold winter climate like the one the Trans-Antarctica Expedition is experiencing. Photocopy the handouts What Is It Like in Antarctica?; Antarctic Explorers; Trans-Antarctica Survival Plans; and Hypothermia: The Cold Weather Killer. The handouts will serve as reference materials for students completing the activity. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Coat for an ice cube) Students will find out what type of clothing material is best at keeping heat in. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Is staying dry important in winter survival?) Students will conduct an experiment to determine whether or not it's important to stay dry if you find yourself in a winter survival situation. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #3: (Winter survival car kit) Students will make a winter survival kit.  WHO OWNS ANTARCTICA? The goals of this module are to help students explain how the ownership and use of Antarctica is presently being determined and to explain implications of the renewal of the Antarctic Treaty. EXPLORATION ACTIVITY: Using world maps and globes for reference, have students write answers to the following questions: - Who owns Antarctica? - What interest does the United States have in Antarctica? - Who should determine Antarctica's future? CONCEPT INVENTION ACTIVITY: Using a globe or world map locate the seven nations making territorial claims in Antarctica. Using an outline map of Antarctica and data included in the module draw in the approximate territorial boundaries claimed by the countries listed. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #1: (Antarctica mineral resource dilemma) Students will become familiar with the complexity of land and resource management in Antarctica by developing and presenting a proposal for approval by the commission for the development of resources in Antarctica. APPLICATION ACTIVITY #2: (Antarctica mineral resources: Development or world park?) To have students decide whether or not to develop Antarctica's mineral resources and then design a campaign poster and brochure to persuade others.